Social-cultural factors of the genesis and formation of the historical anthropology as the modern philosophy of history


  • S. Aytov Dnipro National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan, Ukraine, Dnipro



This article investigates the complicated problem of historical anthropology as the modern philosophy of history social-cultural factors of it genesis and formation. The methodology of this work is based on the principles of complementarity, structurality, and dialogue. Studied problems include methods: philosophical hermeneutics, systemic-structural, interdisciplinary. The emergence and formation of historical anthropology as a modern philosophy of history were embodied in the stages of genesis and «total history», the initial development of this science. Within them, ontological, epistemological and axiological principles were formed, which are significant for the further development of historical and anthropological concepts. Thus, in the ontological sphere a reflective field of scientific research was generated: mass psychology of Western European societies of the Middle Ages and Early Modern times, their conscious and subconscious ideas about the world, attitudes of socially significant behavior, various forms of life and everyday life, religious and parareligious. In the epistemological sphere, a «methodological toolkit» of historical and anthropological studies was formed, which was based on theoretical approaches to the events and processes of the past as a scientific problem and a broad interdisciplinary dialogue; the concept of a long time of history as such, during which the mentality of societies changes. The axiological sphere was formed in the understanding of man as the main object of historical and anthropological studies and an important factor in historical dynamics, which has a very significant impact on the latter. The formation of these meaningful planes of historical anthropology took place under the significant influence of socio-cultural processes of the first half of the last century. Among them are the processes of «massification» of societies; significant ideologization of the public consciousness of many countries, especially European ones; widespread ideological systems of both right (nazism, fascism) and left (communism, social democracy) direction, which was accompanied by an all-encompassing belief in the truth of their postulates of the masses; the defeat of Nazi sociopolitical models and ideologies in World War II; the initial phase of the formation of sociopsychological foundations of the «consumer society». These socio-cultural trends stimulated in historical anthropology the focus on the study and comprehension of the mass psychology of societies of the past in its subconscious and conscious elements as essential factors of causality and the content of their historical dynamics. Research and analysis of the mental and cultural horizon of causality, features and prospects for the development of past processes at all levels were the main task of historical - anthropological concepts. To some extent, the sociocultural context of the first half of the last century created an objective social and scientific need for historical anthropology as a modern philosophy of history for a relevant understanding of complex sociocultural processes, both past and less relevant and present. In contrast to their understanding of the large dimensions of historical processes, economic, geocultural, georeligious, historical anthropology focuses on the analysis of socio-psychological everyday behavioral and cultural foundations of the whole variety of historical processes. This gives her the opportunity to deeply understand the causes and essence of historical dynamics, reasonably comprehend alternatives to its projection into the future.