Philosophical conceptions and theoretical foundations of historical anthropology as a modern philosophy of history forming




The article analyzes the impact of methodological approaches of philosophical thought on the formation of historical anthropology as a modern philosophy of history. The methodology of this work is based on the principles of complementarity, structure, and dialogue. In the study of labor problems, methods were involved: philosophical hermeneutics, systemic- structural, interdisciplinary. Historical anthropology as a version of the philosophy of history, which explores the mental- cultural plane of causes, the essence of historical processes and their possible projection into the future, has a significant potential for understanding the global social- cultural dynamics in past eras through philosophical- historical concepts. An important condition for the implementation of this scientific task is the analysis of the formation of the theoretical foundations of historical- anthropological dimensions of philosophical- historical thought. The study of the specified problem field is based on the study of the philosophical theories of R. G. Collingwood, K. Lévi- Strauss, and M. Foucault. The main ideas of R. G. Collingwood, which are important for the formation of the concepts of historical anthropology as a modern philosophy of history, include the understanding of the philosophical potential of historical thought; the need to combine philosophical concepts and historical methodologies; the importance of understanding the mental and cultural horizon of the past through the philosophy of history. Among the factors influencing the structuralist concepts of K. Lévi- Strauss on the formation of the theoretical foundations of historical anthropology as a modern philosophy of history, it is possible to single out the analysis of mythological elements of perception of the world by proto- societies; identification and studies of unconscious components of psychology and culture of societies of the specified type, implementation of scientific interactions of historical knowledge and ethnology. Important concepts of M. Foucault, which influenced the formation of theoretical approaches of historical anthropology as a modern philosophy of history, includes the analysis of unconscious elements of the psyche of societies in different eras of the past; understanding the phenomenon of «otherness» in history; study of mental representations in European society about mental illnesses; research on the understanding of the phenomenon of madness in Western European art; studies of the mentality of doctors in the Early Modern Time. The theoretical foundations of historical anthropology as a modern philosophy of history, which were formed under the influence of philosophical concepts, include the ontological, epistemological and axiological planes. The ontological plane is manifested in the formation of the problem field of historical- anthropological studies, the mental- cultural horizon of the past. Its composition includes: analysis of the subconscious foundations of psychology and mythological systems of proto- societies and early- historian societies; understanding the communities’ perception of the specified types of various socio- cultural phenomena, in particular diseases and means of treatment; the attitude of societies to certain social groups, in particular to doctors; analysis of the perception of political power and the mechanisms of formation of its social- psychological foundations. The epistemological plane is revealed in the formation of historical- anthropological concepts of methods of analysis of deep, unconscious aspects of the psychological and cultural dimension of past eras; effective application of an interdisciplinary approach in the analysis of mental phenomena and social behavior; realization of cognitive interaction of methodological approaches of ethnology and historical anthropology. The axiological plane consists in stimulating the spread in the understanding of the mental- cultural horizon of historical processes of the values of humanism, pluralism and the equality of cultures and civilizations of the past and the present; dialogue of various cultures, worldview systems and intellectual traditions.