The Philosophy of child-centrism: from I. Kant to V. Kremen




The article examines the peculiarities of the concept of child-centrism at various stages of the development of society, in particular, the emphasis is placed on the identification and systematization of information regarding the trends of the study of the child as an independent, unique element of the social group. The concept of freedom is considered as a key characteristic of the child’s harmonious natural development. Retrospective analysis of sources made it possible to trace the dynamic development of child-centrism as a philosophical and pedagogical concept, based on the views of such specialists as Ya. Komensky, Zh-Zh. Rousseau, I. Pestalozzi, I. Kant, H. Skovoroda, K. Ushinskyi, L. Vygotskyi., V. Sukhomlynskyi, A. Makarenko, A. Disterweg, D. Dewey, M. Montessori, V. Preyer, J. Korchak, M. Med, V. Kremen. Within the framework of the study, please note that the trends towards the actualization of child-centrism have been developing since the beginning of an in-depth study of the leading components and aspects of educational practices. On the basis of a complex interdisciplinary analysis, the differences between the concepts of philosophers, psychologists and teachers are revealed, in the context of a critical understanding of theoretical constructs, the historical experience within the framework of the specified interdisciplinary issue is summarized. The key characteristics of child-centrism are identified and described. Child-centrism is considered here as a philosophical concept, on the basis of which a model of raising and teaching a child was developed, the purpose of which is to expand his life path and self-development, attention to the system of his values and interests in order to form the basics of life competence in him. The idea of child-centrism as a leading link of humanism, the need for which is urgent for the current stage of the development of society in the context of global changes and the war in Ukraine, is substantiated. The value of human life comes to the fore when a person is in certain «material deprivation», losing his own property, being evacuated. During the war, a child becomes one of the highest values, as a counterpoint to death. It is the child