Modern approaches to development typology of tacit knowledge




The implicit component of knowledge is present in all types of human activity without exception – both in intuitive actions “at the level of a living being” and in specifically human activity – cognitive, practical, creative. Therefore, the study of the problem of implicit knowledge remains relevant for modern theory of knowledge and epistemology. The purpose of our research is to search for general principles of the approach to the development of typology of tacit knowledge based on the analysis of existing typologies. Historical-genetic and comparative methods are used to achieve the goal. The study has implemented the analysis of the types of implicit knowledge that have been proposed by various researchers up to our time: prerequisite, practical-activity, value-evaluative, peripheral, instrumental, paradigmatic and anti- paradigmatic, displaced, contextual, reduced, associative, averbal-ideal, etc. Each of these types is subjected to analysis, the result of which is the conclusion that there is no single principle in the development of such typologies, a single criterion for distinguishing one or another type. The study proved that the proposed list of implicit knowledge is, in fact, only a list of different types of this knowledge, it is even difficult to call it a typology, the more so it cannot in any case be considered a classification of implicit knowledge. In addition, the imperfection of the given division lies in the fact that the proposed varieties do not actually exist as separate phenomena, they are not able to function without connections with many other subtypes of tacit knowledge. Therefore, the linear approach to the classification of tacit knowledge does not allow to clearly define the specifics of one or another type, as well as their relationships and principles of interaction. It is possible to solve this problem thanks to the use of a multi-level scheme, in which both the specifics of each species and the relationship between them will be reflected, as well as, no less important, the peculiarities of the origin of these varieties. At the first stage of developing such a typology, we suggest using the dichotomous principle, which allows you to take successive steps in dividing tacit knowledge into certain, related types. It is important that these types differ from each other in basic, fundamental characteristics. Secondly, attention is drawn to those types of implicit knowledge that have not become objects of scientific or philosophical research at all. These include inherited tacit knowledge of a biological nature, extrapersonal forms of tacit knowledge, as well as tacit knowledge associated with the functioning of natural languages. The study does not deplete the raised problem of constructing the integral typology of implicit knowledge. These and other hypothetical propositions require further in-depth research and may become the basis for the development of a more complete typology of tacit knowledge. The study has