UFTI: little-known pages of history of the 30‑years


  • G. L. Zvonkova G. M. Dobrov Institute for Research of Scientific and Technical Potential and History of Science National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4029-8721




The article highlights little-known facts about the history of the research conducted by the Ukrainian Institute of Physics and Technology. The analysis of the archive data helped to trace the genesis of early experiments of the Ukrainian Institute of Physics and Technology. Specifically, the author analyzed the following aspects of the early development of science in Ukraine and in the USSR: First, the article highlights the foundation of the Ukrainian Association of Physicists, Institute of Physics and Technology in Ukraine. Moreover, it describes early activities of the Board of Scientific and Technical Management of the Supreme Council of National Economy of the USSR. Thus, author describes the initial stages of coordination of scientific activities of Ukrainian physical institutes in great details in this article. Second, the author clearly emphasized that the establishment of such scientific institution was based on the need to contribute further into the ever-growing development of science in Ukraine. It was necessary to establish close and fruitful cooperation between factory laboratories, research facilities, the Supreme Economic Council, and the People’s Commissariat of Education of the USSR. Certain delicate details are described, such as the background regarding the construction of facilities for deep cooling research. Third, the researcher outlines primary objectives of the research institution, and the key responsibilities of both the Board of the Institute and the CEO of the Institute. The board of the institute heavily contributed into the war effort by pushing the conduction of research with uranium fusion, thus contributing into the creation of nuclear weaponry and other significant breakthroughs. Furthermore, the activities of lead-researchers helped to organize scientific activities of large creative teams, which signaled the beginning and the creation of the schools of physics. Such facts allow us to learn more about the significant contribution of scientists who have enriched Ukrainian and the world science. Finally, the author focused on certain events that characterized the complexity and uneasy relationships a between scientific personnel and state officials in the 30’s of the 20th century. Such power struggle resulted in unfortunate results, such as the repressions of scientists and officials alike. The author analyzed the scientific scope that was prioritized by the institute in 1929. This marked the establishment and the formation of qualified scientific and technical personnel that facilitated a new for various experiments on the base of the institute. Thus, conditions were created for the foundation of the modern schools of physics; as well as for the rapid development of modern trends in said physics school.