Social-historical preconditions of the genesis and development of the historical anthropology as a modern philosophy of history


  • S. Sh. Aytov Dnipro National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan, Dnipro, Ukraine



The formation and development of theoretical approaches to historical anthropology as a modern philosophy of history were realized in the stages of genesis and «total history», initial in the development of this discipline. Ontological, epistemological and axiological principles of further dynamics of historical and anthropological investigations appeared in their space. Thus, in the ontological plane the problem field of scientific studies was formed: social psychology of societies of Western Europe of the Middle Ages and Early Modern times, their conscious and subconscious components of worldview, norms and values of socially significant behavior, multifaceted phenomena of life and everyday religions. In the epistemological plane, a «methodological toolkit» of historical-anthropological explorations was generated, which was based on methodological approaches to understanding the events and processes of the past as theoretical problems and the need for intensive interdisciplinary interactions; the concept of a long time of historical dynamics as such, during which the worldview of the societies of the past changes. The axiological plane was formed in the understanding of man as the main object of historical-anthropological research and a significant factor in the dynamics of the past, which has a very strong influence on the latter. The formation of these semantic planes of historical anthropology was carried out under the influence of socio-historical processes of the first half of the last century. Among them are the huge and grandiose processes of World Wars I and II and the processes of interwar socio-political and geopolitical transformations, the defeat of nazi and fascist socio-historical models implemented in the development of Western and Central and Eastern Europe, the experience of participating in global historical processes. masses of people and the formation of mass ideas about them. These socio-historical processes were the basis for the formation of historical- anthropological studies focus on the study and understanding of the mental and cultural horizon of societies of the past in the subconscious and conscious aspects as essential factors of causality and features of their historical development. Research and analysis of the socio-psychological and cultural sphere of causality, content and potential of the historical dynamics of all its sections have become the main task of historical anthropology as a modern philosophy of history. Socio-historical processes of the first half of the last century formed an objective social and scientific need for the genesis and formation of historical and anthropological concepts for scientifically adequate understanding of the multifaceted mental and cultural horizon of the past and to some extent the present. The study and understanding by historical anthropology of the psychological and cultural dimension of the development of societies, macroregions and the world system of past epochs emphasizes its originality in relation to the modern first stages of the dynamics of this science significant philosophical-historical concepts: Marxist, cultural-historical by O. Spengler, axial time by K. Jaspers. In contrast to the analysis of these theories of such areas of historical processes as economic, geocultural, georeligious, historical anthropology as a modern philosophy of history focuses studies on understanding the mental, socio-behavioral and cultural foundations of the diversity of phenomena of the past. This allows her to relevantly understand the causality and content of historical processes, to understand alternatives to their potential development in the future.